Chapter8 Answers to Select Review Questions

1.  What is the first written account of the contemplation of tissue replacement?

It can be traced back to direct references in the Book of Genesis.

5.  What types of stem cells are most often used in clinical trials?

There is a tendency towards stem cell phenotypes that are the most understood and well characterized.  In addition, the mode of administration, safety, potential efficacy and disease type all play roles in defining the clinical potential of a particular cell type.  Therefore, an obvious choice for most stem cell-based clinical trial efforts is in the hematopoietic area.

7.  Name two types of stem cells that have been used in clinical trials to treat cardiovascular disease.

Cardiac stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs).

8.  Why is spinal cord injury so difficult to repair?

In many cases the injury damages the cell bodies or neuronal processes which often results in cell death.  These cells are not typically replaced.  In addition, SCI often results in axonal damage, which is the root cause of disability, including voluntary movement, tactile sensibility and chronic pain.

11.  List three sources of stem cells that may be used for the treatment of stroke.

Stem cells isolated ten years prior from fetal nerve tissue samples; autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from the posterior iliac crest

14.  What autoimmune disorders might be treatable via stem cell transplantation and what types of cells are good candidates for this treatment?

MS and ALS may be treatable with mesenchymal stem cells.

18.  What type of stem cell might be used to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

Myosatellite cells

22.  What are four canine diseases treatable using stem cells?

Osteoarthritis, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and spinal cord injury